HyFUELS – Danube Strategy for Use of Renewable Hydrogen in Petrol Refineries

HyFUELS project aims to develop Danube Strategy for use of renewable hydrogen in petrol refineries in the Danube region and support its validation and recognition as an advanced transport fuel of non-biological origin, produced from renewable energy sources, other than biomass.
HyFUELS will promote and clarify the benefits from use of renewable hydrogen in refineries, such as increased energy independence, improvement of energy security and efficiency and a significant sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from fuel
Pursuant to Renewable Energy Directive (RED) each member state of EU is to ensure that the share of energy from renewable sources in all forms of transport in 2020 is at least 10% of the final consumption of energy in transport in the respective country.
The Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) requires a reduction of life-cycle greenhouse gas intensity of the fuels, used in road vehicles or in non-road-mobile- machinery by 6 % by 2020, calculated from a 2010 baseline.
The blending of biofuels is one of the methods available for fossil fuel suppliers to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of the fossil fuels supplied.
According the last amendments of RED, in order to be counted towards the target of 10% in the transport sector, the greenhouse gas emission savings from the use of biofuels and bioliquids shall be at least 60% for biofuels and bioliquids produced in installations starting operation after 5.10.2015.
As global demand for biofuels rises, their production can contribute to the conversation of land such as forests and wetlands into agricultural land, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions from indirect land use can significantly reduce or even eliminate the greenhouse gas savings from biofuels.
In accordance with the Indirect Land Use Directive (ILUC Directive) from 2015 for amendment of RED and FQD, the production of biofuels from crops grown on lands which can be used for cultivation of food and animal feed crops should be limited and the production of new generation biofuels should be encouraged, such as fuels produced from waste or algae and renewable liquid or gaseous transport fuels from non-biological origin. Advanced biofuels will count double towards the 10% target in the RED.
Most biofuels produced from biomass crops cause throughout their entire life cycle too much greenhouse emissions to allow a reduction of 60% as compared to gasoline and diesel produced from a petrol base. A 60% reduction of greenhouse emissions can be achieved with new generation biofuels produced from, for example, waste or algae, but the potential for production of such biofuels is highly limited.
Hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources and used in refineries for production of conventional fuels may be of significant help for fulfilment of the goals for greenhouse emission reductions and will simultaneously aid the sustainable production of low-carbon and energy efficient transportation.
Greenhouse gas emission of renewable hydrogen are lower than 9,1 g CO2/MJ. Compared to hydrogen produced via steam reforming out of natural gas the greenhouse gas count for renewable hydrogen is reduced by 87,5%.
Potential contribution of renewable hydrogen in refineries to greenhouse gas targets by 2020 is app. 5,5%. Nowadays the emissions of road transport from gasoline and diesel in the EU are about 1134 Mio. t CO2 p.a. Potential contribution of green hydrogen for CO2 reduction could be about 65 Mio. t CO2p.a., corresponding to approximately 90% of the obligations of 6% by 2020.